中文
English
ភាសាខ្មែរ
Take-out waste disposal?
2018-08-07 14:50
At noon, Xiao Xia, a media worker working in the Haidian District of Beijing, finished his lunch. Since the company does not have a canteen, his lunch with his colleagues is usually solved by using a mobile phone to take delivery. After a meal, Xiao Xia counted up, rice, main course, small dishes, soup... A person’s meal consumed 4 plastic lunch boxes. In the trash can of the company's corridor, takeaway lunch boxes have been piled up into hills.
The rapid growth of the online take-away industry has greatly facilitated people's eating and filling their stomachs, but it has created more waste to some extent. The plastic lunch boxes pass through the garbage dump, which is a hidden danger to the environment.
How to make the higher plastic boxes smaller? How to make the take-away industry achieve green development? This is a difficult problem that requires multiple measures.
The 1 Large use of plastic lunch boxes
How hot is the takeaway? According to data released by Internet delivery platforms such as the US Mission’s takeaway, hungry, and Baidu’s takeaways, the nation’s daily orders for the three takeaway platforms are around 20 million. Due to the rapid delivery, variety, and convenience of payment, many foreigners in China commented that in addition to “high-speed rail, Alipay, shared bicycles, and online shopping”, China’s take-out should also be attributed to the “four new inventions”.
The outbreak of the take-out business caused excessive use of lunch boxes. Some environmental protection organizations researched and analyzed 100 takeaway orders. On average, each takeaway consumes 3.27 disposable plastic lunch boxes/cups. This means that at present, more than 60 million plastic lunch boxes are used every day on the Chinese Internet ordering platform.
In fact, not only lunch boxes, but also plastic bags, plastic tableware, and plastic outer packagings used for food delivery are plastic waste. The main ingredient of ordinary plastic lunch boxes and tableware is polypropylene, and the main component of plastic bags is polyethylene, which are non-degradable ordinary plastics. It has been reported that plastic bags used by the take-away platform can cover 420,000 square meters every day, and a West Lake can be covered in about 15 days.
For many catering companies, using plastic lunch boxes is also a frustrating move. According to industry sources, Chinese foods contain soups and oils, and it is more appropriate to use plastic lunch boxes. Although there are currently catering companies using cartons and other packaging, most of the degradable lunch boxes are not suitable for Chinese food, and they are apt to seep through and permeate the oil and make the rice stick together, making it difficult for consumers to accept it. In addition, the cost of lunch boxes is also a consideration for catering companies. According to the person in charge of catering companies, take-away packaging accounts for about 2% of the total cost.
In fact, the plastic food containers currently used for takeaways are not "useless." According to a survey by the reporter, most plastic lunch boxes are printed with recyclable labels and can be reused through the garbage recycling process. However, the reality is that most consumers discard the lunch box directly after they have finished eating. Even if there are leftovers in the lunch box, they are mostly covered. Plastic trash and food waste are “mixed and matched”, which brings a lot of trouble to the recycling of takeaway garbage.
2 Poor plastic recycling channels
Even after entering the garbage collection process, the value of the take-away lunch box is not high. According to industry insiders, plastic recycling prices are low, and the cost of recycling is high. Recyclers are generally reluctant to fill up with take-out lunch boxes that are oily. Even if they come back, they must be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, plastic lunch boxes are not To be seen. Whether it is garbage recycling companies or the city's "pilots of scavenging waste," they all "have no feelings" about recycling plastic products.
At the same time, China has not yet formed a complete recycling system. As a low-value-added recyclable material, plastic lunch boxes are difficult to enter into recycling channels for renewable resources. Even if consumers take the initiative to classify plastic waste, due to imperfect recycling systems, sanitation trucks may also be able to mix and dispose of various types of waste when transporting waste.
Since it is difficult to recover, plastic lunch boxes can only be “mixed” with municipal solid waste, enter the waste disposal system, and finally be burned or landfilled as ordinary waste. However, if the different plastic components are burned together, air pollution is likely to occur. Before the landfill, the larger plastic wastes are usually simply incinerated, resulting in large amounts of exhaust emissions. Therefore, letting plastic lunch boxes enter the waste disposal system is not a permanent cure.
In fact, the “white pollution” brought by plastic products is not unique to China, and countries in the world are facing the same difficulties. If there is a relatively sound waste classification system, plastic meal boxes and other products can be recycled efficiently through recycling channels. However, the data shows that only 14% of the world's plastic packaging has been recycled.
In terms of the cost of recycling the lunch boxes, there are also experiences and lessons worth learning. For example, the cost of recycling food containers in Japan is borne by the consumer; in Europe and the United States, the processing fee is borne by the manufacturer. In China, Shanghai implemented the "Interim Measures for the Management of Disposable Plastic Lunch Boxes" in June 2000. The administrative department will collect 3 cents for each lunch box from manufacturers who produce disposable plastic lunch boxes as recycling processing fees. However, the implementation of this system was not smooth and was abolished in May 2014.
3 Strengthen classification recovery and processing
Experts said that the solution to the problem of take-away garbage should start from the source and the downstream. It is necessary to take measures to reduce the generation of take-away waste, but also to strengthen the professional recovery and disposal of the waste to be sold, vigorously improve the efficiency of the use and disposal of “stock rubbish,” and strictly control the generation and scale of “increased waste”.
Strengthening classification and recycling and strengthening resource treatment are the main countermeasures to solve the problem of takeaway garbage. In March of this year, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the “Implementation Plan for the Classification System of Domestic Waste”, which requires the compulsory implementation of compulsory garbage classification in 46 cities across the country. By the end of 2020, the utilization rate of domestic garbage was more than 35%.
In this regard, experts said that because the identification of food waste is relatively simple, it can be used as a breakthrough in promoting waste management. For example, in areas where students and office workers are relatively concentrated, there is a targeted way to carry out the sorting and recycling of take-away garbage. After the initial implementation of classified collection, a professional company will be designated to conduct unified recycling.
Sheng Min, secretary general of the Recycling Plastics Association of China Recycling Resources Association, said that at present, there is no corresponding subsidy mechanism for recycling waste plastics and other renewable resources in China. He said that there are two ways to learn from it. One is the European model. The government adopts a mandatory policy to subsidize the recycling of renewable resources. The other is the Japanese model, which is done at the source by cultivating the quality of the people. Good garbage classification.
Song Guojun, a professor at the School of the Environment at Renmin University of China, believes that the policy of compulsory source classification should be firmly implemented, follow the polluter pays principle, and implement the extended producer responsibility system to encourage polluters to reduce waste output, and at the same time make use of resource recovery income to make up for waste management society. cost.
For the classification and recovery of low value-added recyclables such as plastics, some cities in the country have also formulated some measures, such as the establishment of fund subsidies, penalties for violations, etc. Some people in the industry pointed out that in the specific implementation, it is necessary to continue to explore solutions to the problems such as the pre-subsidy of industrial chain, the indefinable object of punishment, the high regulatory cost of recycling statistics, and excessive investment.
4 innovative take-away packaging
From the perspective of the source of take-away waste, it is necessary to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the outbound enterprises and achieve a reduction in the amount of takeaway waste. Among them, the most important idea is to look for innovations in the delivery and delivery packaging and methods.
Experts suggest that they can subsidize the R&D of related companies, reduce taxes on degradable products, and block “white pollution” at the source, so that the public can obtain more convenient and environmentally friendly alternative products.
At present, catering companies have used degradable materials such as pulp lunch boxes and sugar cane fiber trays. However, the cost of such lunch boxes is often higher than that of plastic lunch boxes, so it will take time for full popularity.
In June this year, the U.S. delegation of Takeaways, the China Cuisine Association, the China Environmental Protection Foundation, and dozens of food and beverage takeover brands jointly initiated the “Green Takeaways Convention (Green Article 10)”, which proposed the “promotion of the use of green tableware” and other items. The supply chain issued “hero posts” to find healthy and safe green dishes for small and micro enterprises in the catering industry. There are also take-away platforms that are working with scientific research institutions to develop degradable eco-friendly lunch boxes.
Experts suggest that restrictions should be imposed on the reduction and resource utilization of take-out packaging materials. In accordance with the principle of “whoever is responsible for pollution”, waste disposal fees should be added to take-aways, allowing businesses, platforms, and consumers to pay for the disposal of take-away garbage. .
Some also pointed out that it is possible to imitate the internationally adopted garbage collection deposit system and innovate recycling channels. When the consumer buys a takeaway, he pays a partial deposit to the platform. After the meal is completed, the take-away lunch box is sent to a self-service recycling machine or an artificial collection point. After the platform is confirmed, the deposit will be returned to the consumer, so as to promote the consumers to establish a healthy concept of consumption and awareness of garbage recycling.
  • 快递外卖包装有待绿色化
    快递外卖包装有待绿色化
  • 快递外卖包装有待绿色化
    快递外卖包装有待绿色化
  • 快递外卖包装有待绿色化
    快递外卖包装有待绿色化